The Blue Technology Barometer 2022/23

Overall ranking



The overall rankings tab shows the performance of the examined economies relative to each other and aggregates scores generated across the following four pillars: ocean environment, marine activity, technology innovation, and policy and regulation.

This pillar ranks each country according to its levels of marine water contamination, its plastic recycling efforts, the CO2 emissions of its marine activities (relative to the size of its economy), and the recent change of total emissions.

This pillar ranks each country on the sustainability of its marine activities, including shipping, fishing, and protected areas.

This pillar ranks each country on its contribution to ocean sustainable technology research and development, including expenditure, patents, and startups.

This pillar ranks each country on its stance on ocean sustainability-related policy and regulation, including national-level policies, taxes, fees, and subsidies, and the implementation of international marine law.

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MIT Technology Review Insights would like to thank the following individuals for their time, perspective, and insights:

  • Valérie Amant, Director of Communications, The Sea Cleaners
  • Charlotte de Fontaubert, Global Lead for the Blue Economy, World Bank Group

  • Ian Falconer, Founder, Fishy Filaments

  • Ben Fitzgerald, Managing Director, Core Marine

  • Melissa Garvey, Global Director of Ocean Protection, The Nature Conservancy

  • Michael Hadfield, Emeritus Professor, Principal Investigator, Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Mānoa

  • Takeshi Kawano, Executive Director, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

  • Kathryn Matthews, Chief Scientist, Oceana

  • Alex Rogers, Science Director, REV Ocean

  • Ovais Sarmad, Deputy Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • Thierry Senechal, Managing Director, Finance for Impact

  • Jyotika Virmani, Executive Director, Schmidt Ocean Institute

  • Lucy Woodall, Associate Professor of Marine Biology, University of Oxford, and Principal Scientist at Nekton



Methodology: The Blue Technology Barometer 2022/23

Now in its second year, the Blue Technology Barometer assesses and ranks how each of the world’s largest marine economies promotes and develops blue (marine-centered) technologies that help reverse the impact of climate change on ocean ecosystems, and how they leveraged ocean resources to reduce greenhouse gases and other effects of climate change.

To build the index, MIT Technology Review Insights compiled 20 quantitative and qualitative data indicators for 66 countries and territories with coastlines and maritime economies. This included analysis of select datasets and primary research interviews with global blue technology innovators, policymakers, and international ocean sustainability organizations . Through trend analysis, research, and a consultative peer-review process with several subject matter experts, weighting assumptions were assigned to determine the relative importance of each indicator’s influence on a country’s blue technology leadership.

These indicators measure how each country or territory’s economic and maritime industries have affected its marine environment and how quickly they have developed and deployed technologies that help improve ocean health outcomes. Policy and regulatory adherence factors were considered, particularly the observance of international treaties on fishing and marine protection laws.

The indicators are organized into four pillars, which evaluate metrics around a sustainability theme. Each indicator is scored from 1 to 10 (10 being the best performance) and is weighted for its contribution to its respective pillar. Each pillar is weighted to determine its importance in the overall score. As these research efforts center on countries developing blue technology to promote ocean health, the technology pillar is ranked highest, at 50% of the overall score.

The four pillars of the Blue Technology Barometer are:

Carbon emissions resulting from marine activities and their relative growth. Metrics in this pillar also assess each country’s efforts to mitigate ocean pollution and enhance ocean ecosystem health.

Efforts to promote sustainable fishing activities and increase and maintain marine protected areas.

Progress in fostering the development of sustainable ocean technologies across several relevant fields:

  • Clean innovation scores from MIT Technology Review Insights’ Green Future Index 2022.
  • A tally of maritime-relevant patents and technology startups.
  • An assessment of each economy’s use of technologies and tech-enabled processes that facilitate ocean sustainability.

Commitment to signing and enforcing international treaties to promote ocean sustainability and enforce sustainable fishing.

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MIT Technology Review was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1899. MIT Technology Review Insights is the custom publishing division of MIT Technology Review. We conduct qualitative and quantitative research and analysis worldwide and republish a wide variety, including content, infographics, videos, and podcasts.

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