How to protect species and save the planet-once

Human beings are struggling Contain two complex crises: a sharp rise in global temperature and a sharp decline in biodiversity.But people tend to solve every problem by themselves, such as deploying green energy and Carbon-eating machine, And at the same time tie the ecosystem with ropes to protect them. But in a new report, 50 scientists from all over the world believe that dealing with each crisis in isolation means missing a dual solution to both. Humans cannot solve one without solving the other.

The report is the product of a four-day virtual seminar attended by researchers from all walks of life. It is the result of cooperation between the United Nations Intergovernmental Science and Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Given Paris Agreement, It aims to provide guidance on how campaigns to address biodiversity also address climate change, and vice versa.

Betsy Beymer-Farris, a sustainability scientist at the University of Kentucky, said that this easy-to-understand report not only has great influence among government decision makers and conservation organizations, but also has great influence among enterprises. Review it. “It is difficult for companies and even countries to really extract academic literature,” Beymer-Farris said.The report also addresses the science of climate and biodiversity with The social science of how to achieve change with the help of people who actually rely on land for farming and grazing. Beymer-Farris added: “When I reviewed this report, I was definitely excited.” “I thought: Well, this is definitely different from what I have seen before, because it is a conscious and serious participation, and Moving in a more fair and just direction.”

So what will these activities look like? For example, you turn a heavily deforested forest into a national park. As the trees regenerate, they will absorb carbon in their tissues and provide habitat for the animals to return.Let the forest recover naturally instead of Plant a single tree species Offset the carbon emissions of some companies to make them more resilient.This is called Nature-based solutions, A movement that can not only sequester carbon but also provide additional ecological or economic benefits.

Hans-Otto Pörtner, a climate scientist at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany, said: “You are helping biodiversity. You can actually create opportunities for people to use the system sustainably.” Pörtner produced the report. Co-chair of the scientific steering committee of the seminar. However, he went on to say that if you create a single culture, “there is only one purpose. Then, if the crops you use there are hit by some kind of disaster, you lose that purpose completely.”

Monocultures are less resistant to single disasters (such as wildfires) or slow and continuous pressure brought about by climate change. Report co-author Almuth Arneth, a modeling expert at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany, said: “When trees are stressed and a little weak, they are often vulnerable to insects and other diseases, such as those from insects and other diseases. “If that species is almost independent, it will be stressed and die, and now the entire new forest has disappeared.

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Biodiversity is an insurance policy for this. Naturally growing forests contain a wider variety of species, some of which are more likely to survive one-off disasters or sustain continuous stress, such as higher temperatures and more severe droughts. Resilience is built into the ecosystem because it has been in operation for thousands or even millions of years. Its greater chance of survival also means that it has a better chance of retaining all sequestered carbon, keeping it away from the atmosphere and preventing further global warming.

The authors of the study wrote that stopping human attacks on ecosystems will also help combat climate change. Wetland drainage used for agriculture kills species and destroys the important process of carbon sequestration.Slash-and-burn agriculture in the tropics has ignited concentrated carbon underground Called peat, Which release An alarming amount of greenhouse gases. (Yes, peat is more than Arctic things.) The protection of coastal mangroves has brought a series of special long-term common benefits. The report points out: the carbon sequestration in each area of ​​them is four times that of rain forests, they are home to various species, and they will take action to absorb storms. A barrier to tidal energy.

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