Tehran, Iran Judiciary head Ebrahim Raisi has been elected as the Iran’s next president At a critical moment in the country. Who is the conservative leader and what is his position?
60-year-old Lai Xi has received extensive support from the conservative and hard-line revolutionary camp and its base, Will continue to serve as chief justice until he succeeds the modest outgoing president Hassan Rouhani in early August because he did not resign to run for president.
Like the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, this leader wears a black turban, which shows that he is the descendant of Said, the prophet Muhammad.
Raisi is considered a possible successor after the death of Khamenei at 82.
Before the 1979 revolution
Raisi was born in Mashhad in northeastern Iran. This is a major city and the religious center of Shia Muslims because it is the holy place of the eighth Imam Reza.
Raisi grew up in a priest’s family. He received a religious education and began attending the seminary in Qom when he was 15 years old. There, he studied under several famous scholars including Khamenei.
When he was educated during the presidential debate, he denied that he had only six levels of classical education, saying that in addition to the seminary education, he also had a doctorate in law.
Just a few years before the revolution that brought the Islamic Republic in 1979, when he entered the influential seminary in Qom, many Iranians had a great influence on the governance of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Feeling dissatisfied, the latter was eventually deposed.
Raisi allegedly participated in events that forced the king to go into exile and establish new clerical institutions under the leadership of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
After the revolution
After the revolution, Raisi joined the prosecutor’s office in Masjid Suleiman in southwestern Iran. Over the next six years, he increased his experience as a prosecutor in several other jurisdictions.
In 1985, he was appointed as deputy prosecutor and moved to Tehran, the capital of Iran, which was a key development.
Human rights organizations said that three years later, a few months after the end of the arduous eight-year Iran-Iraq War, he became a member of the so-called “death committee” responsible for overseeing the disappearance and secret execution of thousands of political prisoners.
Raisi will become the first Iranian president to be sanctioned by the United States in 2019 for allegedly participating in mass executions and suppressing public protests.
Amnesty International called on the leader to face charges of crimes against humanity.
After Khamenei became the supreme leader in 1989, the leader continued to rise in the Iranian judicial system. He later served as the prosecutor of Tehran, then led the general inspection organization, and then served as the deputy chief justice until 2014, during which time the pro-democracy green movement protests took place in 2009.
In 2006, while serving as the Deputy Chief Justice, he was the first time he was elected to a conference of experts from South Horosas. This is an organization that has the task of choosing to replace the top leader. He still holds this role.
Raisi was promoted to Iran’s Attorney General in 2014 and remained in that position until 2016, when he climbed the ladder again-although this time outside the judicial system-and was appointed by the supreme leader as Astan-e Quds The guardian of Razavi, a huge bondad or charitable trust, manages the temple of Imam Reza and all affiliated organizations.
In this position, Lai Si holds billions of dollars worth of assets and has established contacts with the religious and business elites in Mashhad, Iran’s second largest city.
Raisi has two daughters and the son-in-law of Ahmad Alamolhoda. He is Mashhad’s hardline and long-term Friday prayer leader. He speaks with fierce, ultra-conservative and highly controversial speeches. And ideas.
In 2017, Raisi ran for the president for the first time and became the main candidate against Rouhani. Rouhani is a moderate. He supported contacts with the West and Iran’s 2015 nuclear agreement with world powers lifted multilateral sanctions in exchange for Restrictions on the country’s nuclear program.
Raisi and his ally, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, became the new hardline Speakers in 2020 amid low turnout and widespread disqualification of reformist candidates, but lost to Rouhani in the election. However, Raisi received less than 16 million votes, or 38%, in an election with a 73% turnout.
After a short retreat, the Supreme Leader appointed him as Chief Justice in 2019.
In that position, the leader tried to cement his image as a staunch opponent of corruption. He held a public trial and prosecuted people close to the government and the judiciary.
He also effectively launched his presidential campaign and traveled almost to 32 provinces in Iran. During these visits, he often announced that he had brought a large factory back from the brink of bankruptcy, portrayed himself as a supporter of hard-working Iranians, and promoted the development of local businesses under US sanctions.
Raisi brought this theme to his 2021 election campaign, and he made limited commitments during the campaign because it was clear that the economic situation, low turnout rates, and the widespread cancellation of reformers and moderate candidates Given his qualifications, no other candidates can pose a serious challenge to his presidency.
During his judicial tenure, the messaging app Signal was banned earlier this year after its popularity soared, and the voice chat app Clubhouse was also banned when it became popular before the election.
With the exception of Instagram and WhatsApp, all major social media and messaging applications are blocked in Iran.
Economic and nuclear agreements
At the urging of another candidate, Lacey briefly discussed the Joint Comprehensive Action Plan (JCPOA) because the nuclear agreement unilaterally abandoned by former US President Donald Trump in 2018 is officially known.
Although he had previously opposed the agreement, this time he said that he will support it like any other country promised, but will form a “strong” government that can steer it in the right direction.
The sixth round of talks between Iran and the world powers is going on in Vienna Recovery agreement, If successful, this will cause the United States to lift sanctions and reduce Iran’s nuclear program, as the country’s current uranium enrichment rate is as high as 63%, which is the highest level ever.
Even as the deadline for reaching an interim agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency on June 24 is approaching, the negotiators still say that the sixth round will not be the last. But there is hope that the agreement will be restored before Raisi takes office.
At the same time, Iran’s 83 million people are suffering from rampant inflation and high unemployment, while the government is facing a considerable budget deficit and is facing difficulties in responding to the deadliest COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle East.
Raisi pledged to tackle inflation, create at least 1 million jobs every year, build new homes and provide special loans to married first-time homebuyers, in addition to ushering in a new era of financial transparency and anti-corruption.
Hamid Mousavi, a professor of political science at the University of Tehran, said that the conservatives’ argument is that the Rouhani government’s mismanagement caused the current situation.
“So according to this statement, if this mismanagement is resolved, then the economy will be resolved, but I do think that many conservatives at least understand the importance of sanctions internally,” he told Al Jazeera.
“I think it will go back to how much flexibility Raisi will show in the negotiations. The important point is who he will appoint for the nuclear negotiations.”
One option is the hardliner Syed Jalili, a former nuclear negotiator under President Ahmadinejad. He was one of the seven candidates approved in the 2021 election and later withdrew from supporting Lacey.
According to Natasha Lindstaedt of the University of Essex, the possible impact of Raisi elections with the United States is uncertain.
“But the type of speech the Iranian president may make sometimes affects how the United States responds,” she told Al Jazeera.
“I think Raisi is returning to Ahmadinejad to some extent. He is a more populist and authoritarian president. It was a very tense period with the United States and Iran,” she said.